The In-in-out educational policy was introduced in Ghana educational system in the 1999-2000 academic year as a three-year Diploma to replace the three-year post-secondary certificate 'A' in training college. It is an importation policy option adopted from Germany. This policy or programme is run by the teacher training colleges. It is a three-year course, the first two years are spent in the colleges, pursuing two years of traditional face-to-face residential education. The educands take pure academic work in the first year. Specific subjects are taught, followed by curriculum studies and integrated with methodology in the second year. Students get needed skills from their interaction with their tutors in the classroom. In addition, students take On-campus teaching practice exercises to be couched on how to teach. With the introduction of bachelor degree in the colleges of education, the program is currently four years.
In the third year, students are posted to cooperative schools (communities that have accepted to accommodate the mentees) within the communities to do a year-long supervised teaching practice. This programme involves the following key prayers, Link tutors; they are tutors selected from the training colleges to supervise the teaching practice activities, Lead-mentors and mentors headteachers and teachers of the cooperative schools who have been trained purposely to supervise the mentees. With the degree students-teachers are posted to do teaching practice in the fourth year.
This programme offers student-teachers the opportunity to experience first-hand the problem of basic school teaching and equips them with hands-on skills for dealing with problems. It solves the teacher supply crisis and creates space in the training colleges for more prospective teachers to be recruited.
It provides cross-fertilization of innovative ideas and technical know-how between student-teachers and their more experienced in the mentor-mentee relationship, staffing position in the school will be improved in the short-run ( because if a teacher (mentor) absent himself from school for any reason, the mentees can take over, classroom routine will be better managed because, while the teacher (mentor) is teaching, the student-teacher can take over other duties such as marking exercises, filling continuous assessment form.
There is the imminent damage for the student-teachers to pick up bad working habits and poor attitudes to work, by ill-motivated, aggrieved, poorly trained and inexperienced teachers playing the role of mentors, the elaborate nature of the supervisory roles expected from the link-teachers may cause them to be ineffective in playing their roles as residential teachers in their colleges. Schools that run shift system also pose special problems, in such schools student-teacher find it difficult to conduct a study-cycle meeting because of lack of time and space. Students teachers complain about difficulties in combining their responsibilities as full-time instructors in the schools with the need to engage in self-tuition in other to undertake assignments and prepare adequately for the end of course examination.
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