In educational planning, there is the need to achieve the desired result. This means the use of proper scientific techniques which follow a process to arrive at an acceptable conclusion to all the stakeholders, it is in this vein that three common approaches have been found to be used in the selection of the type, quality and quantity of education for a particular society.
The social demand approach is most commonly used to mean the aggregate "popular" demand for education. This means the total of individual demands for education at a given place and time under prevailing cultural, political and economic circumstances. In this case, if there are more school going, children than the number of classrooms available then, we say the social demand exceeds supply. Then comes the problem of a demand and supply gap. In Ghana, for instance, there are more qualified students than the nation's universities can admit due to lack of facilities.
The social demand approach, therefore, is a method of forecasting social demand for education and providing means of satisfying that demand. This means that educational demand cannot be done in isolation but be based on the needs of society. So if a community need a school and their need is apparent, then the authorities must plan to provide them with that particular education they need. For instance, if the coast community demands education with fishing based, that is their educational need and the authorities must not force grammar type of education on them. Here education is seen as a social service required by members of a community. This implies that anybody who is qualified and desires admission to a certain level of education must not, according to social justice be denied the opportunity to do so and educational systems must at all cost adopt this social requirement. This approach seems to satisfy social needs and answers many questions that pertain to a society's growth and development.
Ghana Education Service does not sponsor or offer study leave with pay for teachers who opted for courses like law and medicine which have no direct bearing on classroom work or teaching. The private sector will come since the government will not fund that type or level of education. This will further widen the gap between the poor and the rich as education becomes the privilege of the rich. The manpower needs of Ghana can be affected if this approach is solely dependent on it. This is because of the high cost of education vis a vis the scarce resources. Affordability will then be left to the advantage or disadvantage of the society.
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