Important issues for administrators are motivation and communication. Motivation is a factor which closely affects the performance of work and the overall efficiency of an organization. Many distinguished scholars have written about motivation, Skinner, Maslow, Deci, Chris Argyris, Herzberg, Vroom, Campfield, Miskel Soliman, Douglas Megregor and many others have done extensive work on the subject. The purpose is not to go into all that they have done, but how our administrators, especially those in schools, can motivate their workers and students to achieve more.
What is motivation? What causes people to work or study? Most psychogists agree that children need to be motivated to learn. The school will not be able to relise its goals fully until pupils, teachers and administrators themselves are sufficiently motivated. Thus motivation becomes extremely important. Motivation can thus be defined as the inner drive which prompts people to act in a certain way. It involves a number of psychological factors that start and maintain activity towards the achievement of personal goals.
Incentive usually consist of tangible things such as bonus payments or promotion, which may of course mean a rise in salary and lead to personal intangible items such as recognition, prestige, power etc. Desirable working conditions (good classrooms, clean offices, etc) and the realization of personal goals and priorities, but motivation consists more of the intangible things such as leadership, morale and so on.
From management point of view, motivation as a study is useful when it is applied to staff to discover what prompts them to buy certain goods. Applied to schools, it means why certain learners (pupils) are highly motivated, others moderately and some less so, even though incentives are available to all.
Some specific uses of motivation may be as follows: Perhaps an outstanding feature of motivation is that if the staff are properly motivated, this can change an otherwise mediocre group into a highly productive team. Judged purely from the performance of pupils, schools which have teams of motivated teachers tend to be better than those schools in which qualifications and experiences of staff may not be inferior, but they lack motivation.
Motivation is related to leadership, for good leadership sets an example, provides guidance, encouragement and instruction, and can be one of the greatest motivation of all. Schools with effective principals have motivated staff and pupils. Good motivation of staff is definitely related to morale. In a lerge organization, high morele is difficult to attend, and motivations is a prime factor in achieving it.
A knowledge of motivation can help every supervisor to understand his subordinates, and it can equally be of assistance to top management when framing policies, which should take motivational factors into account. Teachers are taught psychology and they are acquainted with the role of motivation. Such knowledge helps them to establish a better understanding of pupils and themselves. When such teachers become policy-makers, they use their knowledge and experience in making policies.
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