Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. TB primarily targets the lungs but may affect any area of the body such as the urinary tract, central nervous system, bones, joints, and/or other organs. TB screening tests help to determine whether a person has become infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria. A TB skin test measures the body's immune response to antigens derived from these bacteria.
TB may cause an inactive (latent) infection or an active, progressive disease. The immune system of about 90% of people who become infected with TB manages to control its growth and confine the TB infection to a few cells in the body. The bacteria in these cells are inactive but still alive. The person does not have any symptoms and is not infectious but does have a "latent TB infection."
If, after some time, the immune system of an individual with an inactive infection becomes weakened (compromised), the mycobacteria may begin to grow again, leading to an active case of tuberculosis disease. Active TB does cause illness and can be passed to others through respiratory secretions such as sputum or aerosols released by coughing, sneezing, laughing, talking, singing, or breathing.
A tuberculin skin test cannot distinguish between latent and active infections. Additional tests, such as AFB testing, are required to help establish a diagnosis of an active TB infection.
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