Metabolic memory: Mechanism and implications for diabetic retinopathy.Chronic hyperglycemia of diabetes lead to micro vascular complications that severely impact (DR) may be the most common of these and is a leading cause of visual impairment and blindness among working age adults in developed nation. Many large scale type 1and type 2 diabetes clinical trials have demonstrated that early intensive glycemic control can reduce the incidence and progression of micro and macrovasclar complications. On the other hand, epidemiological and prospective date have revealed that the stressors of diabetic vasculature persist beyond the point when glycemic control has been achieved. These kinds of persistent adverse effects of hyperglycemia on the development and progression of “metabolic memory “ and oxidative stress, advanced glycation and products and epigenetic change have been implicate in the process. Recent studies have indicated that such “hyperglycemic memory “ may also influence DR, suggesting that manipulation of hyperglycemic memory may prove a beneficial approach to prevention and treatment. This review summarizes clinical trial and mechanistic studies to investigate the significance of metabolic memory as a target of molecular therapeutic aimed at reversing hyperglycemic memory.
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