THE ABO BLOOD GROUPING SYSTEM
Discovered in 1901 by Dr. Karl Landsteiner
4 Main Phenotypes (A, B, AB, O)
A B O gene located on long arm of chromosome 9
Blood group antigens are actually sugars attached to the red blood cell. Antigens are “built” onto the red cell. Individuals inherit a gene which codes for specific sugar(s) to be added to the red cell. The type of sugar added determines the blood group.
THE ABO ANTIGENS
Added to Proteins or Lipids in Red Cells.
Substrate Molecule is H (fucose)
A antigen is N-acetyl-galactosamine (GalNAc) B antigen is Galactose (Gal)
A and B genes code for transferase enzymes.
ANTIBODY CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
Immunizations are frequently done to protect us from disease.
Receive Hepatitis B immunization.
Actual bits of hepatitis virus injected.
Body recognizes as foreign and produces an immune antibody.
Subsequent exposure to real Hepatitis B virus will result in destruction of the virus by immune antibodies.
ABO antibodies are immune and will result in destroying incompatible cells which may result in the death of the recipient
Two genes inherited, one from each parent.
Individual who is A or B may be homozygous or heterozygous for the antigen.
Heterozygous: AO or BO Homozygous:
AA or BB Phenotype is the actual expression of the genotype, ie, group A
Genotype are the actual inherited genes which can only be determined by family studies, ie, AO
Blood group antigens are “codominant”, if the gene is inherited, it will be expressed.
Some aberrant genotypes do occur but due to the rarity will not be discussed.
Understanding of basic inheritance important.
Approximately 45% of the population is group O.
No A or B antigens present, think of as “0” antigens present.
These individuals form potent anti-A and anti-B antibodies which circulate in the blood plasma at all times.
Approximately 40% of the population is group A.
No B antigens present.
These individuals form potent anti-B antibodies which circulate in the blood plasma at all times.
Approximately 11% of the population is group B.
No A antigens present.
These individuals form potent anti-A antibody which circulate in the blood plasma at all times.
Approximately 4% of the population is group AB.
Both A and B antigens present.
These individuals possess no ABO antibodies.
NOTE: This slide is in error as it only illustrates presence of one antigen not 2.
If an individual is transfused with an incompatible blood group destruction of the red blood cells will occur.
This may result in the death of the recipient
SIGNIFICANCE OF ABO GROUP
ABO mismatched transfusions:
May be life threatening
Can be caused by technical or clerical error
More severe in group O patient
Blood group A
Many older studies—we’re talking 1970s and '80s—found weak associations between blood type A and higher rates of alcoholism.These studies suggest type A antigens may alter your immune system's reaction to alcohol in ways that affect intoxication. Also, genetic factors make up about 50% of your risk for alcoholism, according to the National Institutes of Health.
Blood group O
But it's not all bad news for O's: Other research shows you're less likely to suffer from the deadliest forms of malaria—a disease transmitted by mosquitoes—possibly because deadly malarial proteins don't stick to type O blood cells the way they do to other types
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