What is autism?
The acronym "autism spectrum disorder" (ASD) refers to a continuum of neurodevelopmental disorders.
Communication and social contact issues are common in these disorders. Limited, repeated, and stereotyped interests or patterns of behavior are common in people with ASD.
ASD affects people all over the world, regardless of ethnicity, culture, or economic status. Autism is more common in boys than in females, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Trusted Source, with a 4 to 1 male-to-female ratio.
In 2014, the CDC reported that about one in every 59 children had been diagnosed with ASD. There are signs that ASD is becoming more prevalent. This rise has been attributed to environmental factors by others. Experts disagree on whether there is a real rise in cases or whether it is just a result of more frequent diagnoses.
Symptoms of autism
Symptoms of autism usually appear between the ages of 12 and 24 months in early childhood. Symptoms, on the other hand, can occur sooner or later.
A significant delay in language or social growth can be one of the first signs.
The DSM-5 categorizes autism symptoms into two groups: communication and social interaction difficulties, and limited or repeated patterns of actions or activities.
Problems with communication and social interaction difficulties include:
1 Communication problems, such as difficulty expressing feelings, desires, or sustaining a back-and-forth conversation
2 Difficulties establishing and maintaining relationships issues with nonverbal communication, such as difficulty maintaining eye contact or reading body language.
Limited or repeated patterns of actions or activities include:
1 Repetitive gestures, motions, or speech patterns are examples of repetitive movements, motions, or speech patterns.
2 Fixated desires or preoccupations
3 Strict adherence to particular habits or activities
4 An increase or decrease in sensitivity to specific sensory input from their environment, such as a negative reaction to a specific sound.
Within each group, individuals are assessed and the severity of their symptoms is noted.
An individual must exhibit all three symptoms in the first category and at least two symptoms in the second category to be diagnosed with ASD.
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