The placenta is a complex organ which is originated from the layers of the fertilized ovum. It is a flat, roughly circular structure which is approximately 22cm in diameter, 2cm thick on the centre but gets thinner rowards the circumference. Its weights about 0.5kg. When fully developed, it serves as an interface between the mother and the fetus. The human body varies from person to person and also environment and ones lifestyle contributes to the changes in the placenta.
Some abnormalities of the placenta are as follows;
This is also known as valamentous cord insertion. This is an abnormal placenta where by the cord is inserted into the membranes. Blood vessels travel between the cord and the placenta across the membranes. This may lead to fetal anoxia due to pressure or rupture of the blood vessels.
This anormally usually occurs when the amnion and chorion doubles back around the circumference of the placenta during development. It gives it a collar appearance. This may result in antepartum haemorrhage (APH), thus bleeding before term.
As the name implies two of placenta are developed. Two complete and separate parts are present each with a cord leaving from it. This joins a short distance from the two parts of the placenta. This is totally different from twin placenta which has two different cord.
This is when the cord is attached to the edge of the placenta in a manner of a tenis bat.
- Placenta Succenturiata.
This is where thereis an extra lobe present. Blood vessels travels across the membranes connecting the extra lobe to the main placenta. The danger is that this lobe may be retained during childbirth and may lead to infections and bleeding.
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