Yellow fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic disease that affects man. The disease is characterized by regional jaundice in some patients, hence the name "yellow". It can affect people of all ages and common in urban populations, travelers to endemic areas.
Yellow fever is transmitted through the bite of an infected female Aedes aegypti Mosquito. The mosquitoes bite usually during the early morning and early evening.
Man is the main reservoir or source of the infection. When a female mosquito feeds on yellow fever infected blood, it feeds on blood for its progeny and picks up the virus. Upon a bite from this infected mosquito, the virus is injected into the bloodstream.
It usually take 3-6 days before you start seeing the signs and symptoms below.
The first, "acute" phase usually presents with; fever, muscle pain with prominent backache, headache, shivers, nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite, jaundice.
The "toxic phase" may present these; pyrexia, abdominal pain, expistasis, proteinuria, increasing jaundice, vomiting blood, petechial, gum bleeding.
To prevent and protect yourself from getting the disease, must do the following;
1. Vaccination: preventive vaccination can be offered through route infant immunization and one-time mass campaigns to increase vaccination coverage in countries at risk, as well as for travelers to yellow fever endemic areas.
The single-dose vaccine provides effective immunity within one week and last for more than 35 years.
The vaccine is contraindicated in children under 9 months, pregnant and lactating women, people allergic to egg protein, and severely ill or immune-suppressed people.
2. Vector control: In some situations, mosquito control is vital until vaccination takes effect.
The risk of yellow fever transmission in urban areas can be reduced by eliminating potential mosquito breeding sites and applying insecticides to water where they develop in their earliest stages.
Application of spray insecticides to kill adult mosquitoes during urban epidemics, sleeping in treated bed nests, wearing long sleeved attire.
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