Rudolf Virchow from 1821-1902 coined the term Zoonosis and stated clearly that between animal and human medicine there are no dividing lines nor should there be.
The works of Theobald Smith and F.L. Kilbourne, first discovered arthropode play a role vector (1893) demonstrating Boophilus transmission Babesia bigemina parasite caused disease in cattle and based on this ,Yellow fever was discovered
Edward Jenner found that milkmaids exposed to cowpox that were not infected with smallpox, From this discovery, produced first successful vaccine to prevent smallpox and using dead vaccine to prevent hog cholera open the way to produce vaccine to prevent Rickettsia and Polio diseases in man.
Sir Louis Pasteur produced vaccine to prevent rabies and based on this, linked medicine and veterinary medicine.
Sir Robert Koch, established the field of bacteria and discovered TB, Vibriocholerae, anthrax to second the linkage of medicine to veterinary medicine.
Sir Calvin Schwabe (1927-2006) best known along with Jame H. Steele proposed a concept of One Medicine-One Health
On the basis of these, the World Health Organization (WHO), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), One Health Initiative, US Centers for Disease Control and EcoHealth Alliance has come to realized the need of integrating all professions working hand-in-hand to save lives.
One Health Concept is worldwide strategy for expanding interdisciplinary collaborations and communications in all aspects of health care for humans, animals and the environment. Properly implementation will help protect and save untold millions of lives through the integration of human medicine, veterinary medicine and environmental science.
Why this concept applicable?
Firstly, human populations are growing and expending into new geographic areas and as a result, more people live in close contact with wild and domestic animals. close contact provides more opportunities for diseases to pass between animals and people.
secondary, the earth has experienced changes in climate and land use, such as deforestation and intensive farming practices resulting in disruptions in environmental conditions and habits provide new opportunities for disease to pass to animals.
Also , the upsurge of international travel and trade has resulted in rapid spread of diseases globally.
How to achieve One Health Concept? Is team work enough?
Who should be on the One Health Team: individual? government?, doctors? herbal medicine practitioner?, Veterinarian? Physician? Nurse?Public Health Worker?Epidemiologist? Wildlife Scientists? Local Leader/Politician?Environmental Health Worker?Ecologist? Social Scientist? Economist? Communications Specialist? Emergency Responder? Laboratorian? Pharmacist? Logistician? Public Affairs/Marketing?Information Technologist?
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