Glaucoma is the eye disorder the affects the optic nerve of the eye which receives impulses from the retina and transmits to the brain. It is mainly caused by the high pressure in your eyes.
This condition is called ocular hypertension. If this condition is not treated, the first peripheral loss will occur and finally, it leads to complete blindness.
Sometime glaucoma may occur due to normal pressure in the eye; this is caused by the poor blood supply to the optic nerve. It can be treated with early treatment.
Mostly glaucoma has no symptoms, but when the day goes on, you may notice symptoms when the disease in the advanced stage. So it is important to have regular eye check including pressure measurements in the eye.
Greek recognized the group of disorder in 400 BC. Glaucosis ( bluish green hue of the eye)
Arabian writing in 10th about elevated intraocular pressure (IOP)
In the 19th century, glaucoma was recognized as a distinct group
The prevalence of glaucoma is for the people who have age 40 to 80 years is 3.54%.
The prevalence of (Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma) POAG is highest in Africa (4.20%) and the prevalence of Primary Angle-Closure Glaucoma (PACG) is highest in Asia (1.09%)
In 2013, the number of people (aged 40–80 years) with glaucoma worldwide was estimated to be 64.3 million, increasing to 76.0 million in 2020 and 111.8 million in 2040.
In the Bayesian meta-regression model, men were more likely to have POAG than women (odds ratio [OR], 1.36; 95% CrI, 1.23–1.52), and after adjusting for age, gender, habitation type, response rate, and year of study, people of African ancestry were more likely to have POAG than people of European ancestry (OR, 2.80; 95% CrI, 1.83–4.06), and people living in urban areas were more likely to have POAG than those in rural areas (OR, 1.58; 95% CrI, 1.19–2.04).
There are different types of glaucoma are there. But the most common types include:
Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma (POAG): This type reduces your peripheral vision without any associated symptoms. It is painless and often patient doesn’t feel he or she loses the vision until the last stage of the disease.
Once the vision is impaired, it can’t be reversed. Sometimes it may be due to the structural defect in the drainage system of the eye.
It may be hereditary, so there is no cure for this disease. But some treatment may slow or arrest the severity of the disease.
Normal Tension Glaucoma: It is also called as low tension glaucoma. Sometimes with the normal intraocular pressure, optic nerve may get damaged and vision loss may occur. It is due to the poor blood supply to the nerves and thus it causes cell death that carries impulses from the retina to the brain.
Optic nerve with normal tension
Angle-Closure Glaucoma: This type of glaucoma is mostly occurring in Asian decent people or people who have far-sighted. It is also called an acute angle glaucoma.
It has some sudden symptoms such as a headache, eye pain, dilated pupils, red eyes, vision loss, halos around lights, nausea and vomiting. In most people, this angle is about 45 degrees. As the age goes old, frequently lens grows larger.
The ability of aqueous humor to pass between the iris and lens on its way to the anterior chamber becomes decreased, thus it causes pressure build-up behind the iris and leads to narrowing the angle.
If the pressure becomes sufficiently high, the iris is forced against the trabecular mesh-work, blocking drainage, similar to putting a stopper over the drain of a sink. When this space becomes completely blocked, an angle closure glaucoma attack (acute glaucoma) results.
Pigmentary glaucoma: It is the rare type of inherited glaucoma that occurs mostly in men than women. It is due to the clogging of the drainage angle and causes the pigment layer to rub on the eye lens.
This rubbing causes the iris pigment to shed on the aqueous humor and onto neighboring structures, such as the trabecular meshwork. The pigment may plug the pores of the trabecular mesh, causing it to clog, and thereby increasing the IOP.
Some of the conditions that lead to greater risk such as follows:
People above the age of 45
Family hereditary of glaucoma
People who with intraocular pressure (IOP)
Medical conditions such as myopia, diabetes, hyperopia, previous eye injury and long-term use of the corticosteroids
People of African- American descent have high chances for developing glaucoma than other people
The main cause of the glaucoma is a pressure that created in the eye that damages the optic nerve. The normal pressure, which is maintained in our eye ranges between 8 millimeters (mm) and 22 mm of mercury. The eye will be soft when the pressure is low and be harder when the pressure is high.
The optic nerve is the sensitive part of the eye to high pressures because the nerves easily get damaged by direct pressure or decreased blood flow to the nerve.
Some gene related to high pressure and optic nerve damage can cause glaucoma
Some condition that causes glaucoma, such as inflammation of nerves, tumor, diabetes and an advanced cataract.
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