ORGANS OF GOVERNMENT
In every government, there are basically three (3) major organs with the primary of running the affairs of the state. These organs are 1. The legislature-carrying out the legislative functions of law making 2. The executive-that formulate and implement government policies responsibility 3. The judiciary-responsible for interpretation of laws and administration of justice In modern states, each of the above mentioned organs is autonomous in composition. structure and functions. However, they work hand-in-hand and they are interdependent in the performance of their various functions. Let us now consider in detail, the features, structure. functions and limitations of each of these three organs.
The legislature is the organ of government which is vested with the constitutional powers to make laws for the efficient running of the state The legislature is composed of the people in government charged with the exclusive responsibility of making, amending and repealing existing laws for the smooth running of the state. In Ghana and the Great Britain, the legislative arm of government is called Parliament in the U.S.A. it is called Congress and Knesset in Israel. The members of the legislature (legislators) could either be elected or appointed. However, in constitutional monarchies some members of the legislature may find themselves there through inheritance.
FUNCTIONS OF THE LEGISLATURE
It is an undeniable fact that the functions of the legislature are crucial to the administration of the state. Some of the functions are outlined below. 1. Law making: As the name implies, the most important function of the legislature is law making The legislature makes laws to cover all aspects of life (political, economic, religious social, cultural etc.) The laws passed by the legislature give legal backing to policies and programs implemented by the executive. The legislature outdoor new laws and make changes coave or amend already existing ones and also withdraw or repeal outmoded laws. 2. Redress of grievances: Members of the legislature receive grievances from their constituents people) and present them before the House for deliberations and redress On many occasions sector ministers are summoned to appear before parliament to answer Questions relating to the grievances of the people 3. Contral public of finance / approval of government's budget: The legislature has the night to authorize the raising and spending of public funds by the executive. The executive presents the proposals for govemment revenue mobilization and expenditure through the budget for legislative deliberations. The legislature could either accept or reject the budget The legislature appropriates funds to the various ministres, departments and agencies and monies approved for a specific purpose cannot be used for another purposes Loans and grants contracted by the executive are also subject to approval of the legislature. 4. Judicial functions/ impeachment: Some constitutions mandate the legislature to act as a count for the purpose of impeaching and trying the president, the vice president and the superior court judges for a breach of conduct or abuse of powers.
THE SPEAKER OF PARLIAMENT
The speaker of parliament is a person who is either appointed nominated selected or clected by the members of parliament to preside over all parliamentary proceedings The speaker is therefore, the topmost personality in parliament. He/she is one of the three great officers of the state, ranking third in the official order of precedence after the President and the Vice-President. He/she is elected by the members at the first sitting of parliament before the start of any other business in the house. In the political history of Ghana, the office of the speaker was first seen in the 1951 Arden Clarke Constitution of the Gold Coast. Since then all the subsequent Constitutions of Ghana created the office of the speaker. The Fourth Republican Constitution provides that the Speaker shall preside in Parliament at all Sittings and in his/her absence, a Deputy Speaker In the discharge of his/her numerous responsibilities and in the exercise of the powers vested in him/her, the speaker is expected to be impartial and does not take part in debates on the the established practices of the House. floor of the House. Behind the scenes, he/she exercises considerable influence in forging consensus on several issues, whilst fairly and firmly enforcing order and consistently applying
SPEAKERS OF THE GHANAIAN PARLIAMENT FROM 1951 TO DATE (2019) NAME OF SPEAKER
1ir Emmanuel Charles Quist.
2.Hon. Justice Augustus Molade Akiwumi.
3.Hon. Joseph Richard Asiedu.
4.Hon. Kofi Asante Ofori Atta.
5.Hon. Justice Nii Amaa Olleru.
6.Hon. Justice J. Hackenburg Griffiths-Randolph.
7.Rt Hon. Justice Daniel Francis Annan.
8 Rt Hon Peter Ala Adjetey.
9.Ri. Hon. Ebenezer Begyina Sekyi Hughes.
10.Rt Hon Joyce Adeline Bamford-Addo.
11. Rt Hon. Edward Doe Adjaho.
12. Rt Hon Prol Aaron Mike Oquaye.
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