Praise be to Allah, and prayers and peace be upon the Prophet Mohammad (S.A.W.) and his sanctiﬁed and dedicated Companions (R.A.), as well as all their followers till the Day of Judgment.
In this article, we present a brief-biography of the fourth caliph of Islam Ali ibn Abi Talib (R.A.).
His Ancestry, Family and Attributes:
His full name is Ali Ibn Abu Talib Bin Abdul-Muttalib Bin Hashim. He came from the most respectable family of Quraish tribe, the family of Banu Hashim, and he was the cousin of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.). His mother was Fatimah and she embraced Islam early and migrated to Madinah. His father Abu Talib was a chief of Banu Hashim tribe and he was the custodian of the Kaaba. Abu Talib was uncle of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.). Abu Talib was a descendant of the Prophet Ishmael (A.S.), the son of Ibrahim (A.S.).
The documents indicated that Ali (R.A.) was born in Makkah on Friday, 13th of Rajab, thirty years after the incident of the Elephant, corresponding 17th of March, 599 CE.
Ali Ibn Abu Talib (R.A.) was one of the ten men given the tidings of Paradise, he married the Prophet's daughter Fatimah and he embraced Islam so early. He was a prominent scholar, a courageous soldier, a notable ascetic, and a remarkable orator. Further, he was occupied with the collection of the Holy Quran and revising it over with the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.).
His Early life and Acceptance of Islam:
When Ali (R.A.) was at the age of ﬁve, Quraish was struck with a drought that affected the economical status in Makkah. Hence, the Prophet (S.A.W.) appealed to his uncle Al-Abbas to help Abu Talib during the crisis. They offered Abu Talib to care for his children, as Al-Abbas chose to care for Jafar and the Prophet (S.A.W.) took Ali (R.A.) and gave him every kindness and affection in his early childhood, which inﬂuenced him for the rest of his life. He grew up in the household of the Prophet (S.A.W.), and when the Prophet received his mission, Ali (R.A.) was the ﬁrst to become Muslim from early childhood.
Once Ali ibn Abu Talib (R.A.) came back home while the Prophet (S.A.W.) and his noble wife Khadijah (R.A.) were praying. Ali (R.A.) asked about the prayer, then the Prophet (S.A.W.) told him that it is the right religion from Allah, that demands worshiping no god but Allah. Ali (R.A.) said that he has never heard about this before, and has to tell his father Abu Talib about it, but the Prophet (S.A.W.) asked him to keep the matter in secret. The next morning Ali (R.A.) came to the Prophet (S.A.W.) and declared his Islam. At the beginning, he kept his Islam a secret, fearing from his father, but when Abu Talib recognized him, he approved his and asked him to sustain to it while Abu Talib refused to depart the religion of his late fathers till he passed away.
His Role in Prophet’s (S.A.W.) Migration to Madinah:
The Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) remained in Makkah waiting for Allah’s permission to migrate to Madinah while his Companions migrated early. When disbelievers of Makkah plotted to kill the Prophet (S.A.W.), the Angle Gabriel (A.S.) revealed to him the details of that evil conspiracy and asked him (S.A.W.) not to sleep in his bed that night. So, the Prophet (S.A.W.) asked Ali (R.A.) to sleep in his bed to impersonate him, while the Prophet (S.A.W.) left his house safely at night and migrated to Madinah.The Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) was well-known as the most trustworthy of men, although they did not accept his mission, the people of Makkah continued to keep their trusts of cash and gold in his safe-keeping. It was Ali (R.A.) whom the Prophet (S.A.W.) trusted to return the possessions to their owners when he left for Madinah. Thereafter, Ali (R.A.) also migrated to Madinah to join the Prophet (S.A.W.). Ali (R.A.) had suffered immensely in his journey to Madinah, as he spent that long journey walking on his feet. As he reached Madinah, the Prophet (S.A.W.) met him gladly, sending faithful prayers to Allah seeking goodness and blessings for Ali Ibn Abu Talib (R.A.).
With the migration to Madinah, the Prophet (S.A.W.) laid down the foundations of the Islamic country. He (S.A.W.) started with creating bounds of brotherhood among his Companions, built the mosque, endorsed a treaty with the Jews in Madinah, started sending detachments, and overall constituted a new society. Ali (R.A.) was extremely active in serving the Prophet (S.A.W.), being so close to him, following his orders and learning from his guidan
His Marriage with Fatimah (R.
Ali (R.A.) married the Prophet's (S.A.W.) most beloved daughter Fatimah (R.A.), one of the best women all over, her mother was Khadijah Bint Kuwailid (R.A.). The blessed marriage took place in Madinah after the Battle of Ohud, as Fatimah (R.A.) was ﬁfteen years old. Thus, Ali (R.A.) had the additional honor of being the father of the Prophet's (S.A.W.) progeny through his sons from Fatimah (R.A.), Al-Hasan (R.A.), Al-Husayn (R.A.), Zainab (R.A.), and Umm Kulthoom (R.A.)