Any culture that has ever emerged has its own way of ensuring it's safety. This takes the form of spiritual and physical means.
Right from creation, protection from physical and spiritual harm has been man's number one need. This need takes precedence in man's existence because life is the gateway to achieving everything.
The belief of man in the supernatural makes him to seek protection in the spiritual realm.
1. Talismans are traditionally used as protective elements. They are leather porches stuffed with items that are believed to repel or neutralize evil. They mostly wrapped around the waist. They can also be sewn to a clothing and worn. The kind of protection it offers depends on the items stuffed inside of it. Some talismans protect their bearers against accidents, some also protect against gunshots, others against witchcraft.
2. Spiritual rings are also different elements of protection for the African. These rings are worn on the fingers especially the left ones. These rings come in different colours and shapes depending on the type of metal used in making it. Different rings provide different forms of protection. This is why traditional men may be seen wearing different shapes and colours of rings. Just like the talismans, they also provide different forms of protection depending on the type of incantations and spirits conjured into the ring.
3. Protective clothing: These are special clothes that are believed to have the power to repel evil and provide protection for the wearer. They are mostly traditional clothes (fugu/smock). They are bought and sent to powerful shrines for special rituals and incantations to be performed on it. They are mostly worn on special occasions like funerals, durbars and during wars. The level of efficacy of the protective clothing depends on the kind of sacrifices performed on it. The heavier the sacrifice, the more protection it can provide.
4. Enchantment: Some recitations are believed to save one quickly in times of need. Some shrines and spiritual men are believed to have some recitals for people who consult them for protection. These recitals are believed to invoke the spirits of protection in times of need.
PHYSICALLY: Aside the spiritual protection man seeks, he also does not lay loose physically.
1. Buildings have served as the basic element of protection against animal attack especially in the night. The stone aged man faced the problem of attack from deadly animals such as lions, tigers, buffalo and many others. Snake and scorpion bites did not also spare man. Man therefore had to erect a structure that will serve as a barrier against these animals.
2. Our forefathers also walked around with shield as an element of protection. A shield is a round metal plate which is especially used during war to block arrows, stones and other weapons targeted at one.
3. Living near mountains and caves. In the olden days, our forefathers lived by mountains and caves. The reason was to seek refuge during physical attacks. They could hide in these caves during wars.
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