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The agent that emanates knowledge

In order for knowledge to be actualized, the following are required: knowledge, the knower, the known, and the agent. Knowledge by representation is a form or a state actualized for the soul. The known is the object of knowledge, which may be the soul itself or something outside it. The knower is the soul, which acquires knowledge either immediately or is mediated by bodily organs or something else.The agent of cognitive forms is something other than the soul, for the soul is the receiver and cannot itself bestow knowledge. Actions and reactions are not perception or its agent; rather, they are preparatory affairs preparing the ground for actualization of perception. External, material things are not the agents of perception either; for material affairs are weaker than abstract affairs and are in need of a specific position for their efficacy, hence being unable to originate knowledge which is abstract.

Therefore, the agent and giver who bestows cognitive forms must be an intellectual, separate substance which i the closest intellectual substance to the soul and possesses all intellectual forms in a succinct pure manner. Since the species in intellectual immaterial beings is confined to one individual, the agent of emanation of forms is a single substance.The concept of knowledge is self-evident so need so no definition, as the existence of knowledge is obvious, needing no proof. Knowledge by representation is a mediated knowledge actualized for the knower through a cognitive form. in knowledge by representation, the knower has no direct access to external things known, to which it arrives only through its form or concept.

In that knowledge, there is a difference between the known by essence and the known by accident. e known by essence is what exists in the mind, while the known by The k accident refers to its external indications. Knowledge by presence, however, is an immediate knowledge.

In knowledge by presence, there is no indicator or indicated, nor anything known by essence or known by accident; rather, the known thing itself is present at the knower, like the soul's knowledge of itself and its faculties, actions, and reactions; or God's knowledge; or the cause's knowledge of its effect as well as the effect's knowledge of its cause. Our knowledge of the known by presence or cognitive form is immediate knowledge by presence. Yet knowledge by representation also refers to knowledge by presence.Tabataba'i writes, 'Knowledge by representation is the presence of quiddity of the known at the knower, and knowledge by presence is that of existence of the known at the knower.

Since the thing known is present to the knower, knowledge by presence is infallible. What we said about subjective existence, quality in the mind, cognition form is applicable only to knowledge by representation and not to knowledge by presence.

Knowledge by presence is identical with the knower or united with him; it is neither substance not accident but a type of existence, so the well-known problem of subjective existence is not raised in it.Since knowledge is perception of something (the known) by another thing (the knower), the existence of the known by essence and the existence of the knower are unified in proper knowing, for should the knower and the known be separate, knowledge would not be actualized  

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