Brain surgery is a complicated process which requires specialisation and sophisticated tools. But that was not the case in the early centuries. Discovery in Peruvian Andes prove neuro-surgery had long existed before it rediscovery in late 80's. Collectively there were about 32 skulls unearthened.
Ancient healers and doctors practiced trepanation, or brain surgery that skipped the pain meds and scalpels (which did not exist yet) and instead relied on hand-operated drills and other tools to scrape away at the skull and tinker with its contents.
When you get a knock or a severe brain injury that required repairing of the brain then drilling a whole was the only option at hand. The practise was continues which prove some survived the surgery. Researchers can tell whether or not a patient survived based on bone patterns.
If the hole had a pie crust-like pattern of divots, that means the skull had begun to grow back following the procedure. Bone, however, grows very slowly; some patients likely lived out the rest of their days with a large hole in their head. Although the methods were advancing with different tools been used in creating the skull holes, but in early 16th century it was abolished by the Spanish. The Incas and the Al-Andanus also used the same procedure with a notable surgeon of those time been Al-Zahrawi.
#Al - Zarahwi
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