Accra, the capital city of Ghana, like many cities in Africa (especially Sub-Saharan Africa) is vulnerable to natural hazards and disasters. The cause of natural disasters and hazards in Ghana has been mainly from water through flooding or stormy rain or drought, and bush fires.
In Ghana, flooding is among the top 10 natural disasters and hazards and ranks second after epidemics such as bacterial and viral infectious diseases, affecting over three million people and causing huge economic losses each year (Okyere et al. 2012). T
Thecountry has experienced increasing flood events over the yearsthe severest floods in the last two decades occurred in the years 2007, 2010, 2011, 2015, and 2020, which hit many parts of the country, particularly major urban areas.
According to the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction , flood disasters account for about one-third of all-natural disasters, ranking by economic losses, between 1994 and 2013.
The occurrence of flood events in many parts of the world has raised public, political, and scientific interest in flood risks and prevention strategies.
Despite considerable technologies developed for forecasting, management, and defense, floods are still a significant threat around the world
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