This is called the cauliflower ear. Its very common among not just wrestlers but also others who are involved in full contact sports like MMA, rugby, jiu-jitsu. If observed in kids, it could be an indication of child abuse.
The cauliflower ear happens when the external part of the ear suffers a blow, blood clot or other collection of fluid under the perichondrium. This separates the cartilege from the overlying perichondrium that supplies its nutrients, causing it to die and resulting in the formation of fibrous tissue in the overlying skin. As a result, the outer ear becomes permanently swollen and deformed, resembling a cauliflower.
There are some preventive measures. You might have seen that some wrestlers wear headgear. This is to prevent the injury from occurring.
The best way to prevent yourself from developing cauliflower ear is to always wear headgear like helmets, caps, and earmuffs, specifically designed for wrestling competition. These ear protectors come in different styles and are typically tight-fitting, as well as adjustable.
The great thing about wrestling headgear is that it can almost completely eliminate the risk of sustaining an injury to the ear during competition.
The drawback to it is that some wrestlers find wearing headgear to be distracting and uncomfortable. This preference for comfort can sometimes compel them to neglect the headgear part of the time. However, in order for headgear to be effective, it should be worn ALL of the time.
While certain contests require headgear to be worn, not all do.
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